Antimicrobial Activity of Lysozyme against Oral Pathogens

T. Jesse Joel, S. Suguna, S. R. Steff

Abstract


Saliva contains a number of antimicrobial substances which have their origin either in salivary glands or serum from which they may leak into the mouth via the gingival crevices. Saliva is believed to possess a substantial influence on the aggregates oral pathogens form in the mouth due to the antibodies as well as proteins whose antimicrobial properties do not depend on prior exposure to an antigen. One such enzyme is Lysozyme which is one of the most powerful natural antibacterial and antiviral compounds known to man. According to previous researches, it has been found out that lysozyme may bind and aggregate Gram-positive bacteria such as putative Gram-negative periodontopathic bacteria such as Capnocytophaga gingivalis. This particular study explores the natural phenomenon Lysozyme exhibits against oral microflora with noteworthy conclusions. Saliva samples were collected from the oral cavity of human, cow and dog. From these samples, lysozyme was isolated and purified. Furthermore, the quantity of the enzyme isolated was ascertained by Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The quantified enzyme showed 32kDa for cow sample, 23kDa for dog sample and 23kDa for human sample. Finally the antimicrobial activity of the enzyme was determined by agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus faecalis. Hence lysozyme in saliva is found to have the antibacterial activity against the pathogen due to the zone of inhibition observed and this proves that a tool to prevent dental decay is available and that there is potential to serve antimicrobial role in the specific application of medical industry.

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