Antiulcer Activity after Oral Administration of the Wormwood Ethanol Extract on Lesions due to Leishmania major Parasites in BALB/C Mice

Kourosh Azizi, Fatemeh Shahidi-Hakak Mohammad Djaefar Moemenbellah-Fard, Qasem Asgari, Soliman Mohammadi-Samani

Abstract


Herbal extracts were used to investigate the in vivo efficacy of Artemisia absinthium on the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in susceptible mice. A total of 40 BALB/c mice were subjected to assays. In each, 3-5×103 amastigotes of standard Leishmania major strain were inoculated subcutaneously into the tail base of mice. Groups of mice were assigned as: I-negative control, II-positive control, III-Glucantime®, IV-ointment twice a day, V-ointment with oral medicine, VI-oral medicine on parasite injection, VII-oral medicine once ulcer develops, and VIII-ointment-based crème on ulcer. The gold standard of clinical infection control was based on ulcer size measurement using a Vernier scale weekly during 4 weeks Post-Ulcer Development (PUD). The mean ulcer sizes in different groups were compared using the post hoc Dunnett's 3 statistical analyses. There was a significant difference between the two groups of ointment with medicine (V) and medicine on parasite inoculation (VI) (P ≤ 0.027). Antiulcer activity and healing was noted after oral treatment with aqueous extract on parasite injection. There was a significant difference between data from positive control group and local ointment with oral medicine (P ≤ 0.045) indicating that ointment use facilitated ulcer growth. There was also a significant difference between data from Glucantime® use and ointment with medicine group (P ≤ 0.039) which showed the deteriorating effect of oil-based ointment use. The oral administration of extract had an effect similar to Glucantime® use and led to the repair of ulcer. A. absinthium extract as oral feeder appeared to cause modulation of host responses, ulcer size reduction and tissue repair.

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