Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors Association with Warfarin Long Term Therapy Stability in Sudan

Azza A. M. H. Swar Aldahab, Abdallah. O. Elkhawad


Anticoagulation with warfarin is characterized by a wide inter-individual variations in dose requirements and INR (International Normalised Ratio) stability, as there are evidences that warfarin response variability is associated with CYP2C9 (cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 9) and VKORC1 (Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex1) genetic polymorphisms. Carriers of CYP2C9*2 and VKORC11639G>A variant alleles are at greater risk of unstable anticoagulation therapy. Objectives: This retrospective case control study was directed to analyze the impact of genetic and non-genetic factors on warfarin therapy in Sudanese out-patients who were on long term warfarin therapy. Method: 118 Sudanese outpatients receiving warfarin treatment for at least six months, were interviewed for their non-genetic factors that included age, sex, indication for warfarin therapy, compliance, Vitamin K rich foods intake and concomitant drug therapy, in addition to their blood samples which were taken for DNA extraction and genotyping of CYP2C9*2 and VKORC11639G>A gene polymorphisms to study the genetic factors. INR stability % index was calculated, accordingly patients were classified into 2 groups, stable and unstable groups. Results: The frequencies of VKORC11639G>A alleles in Sudanese out-patients who were on long term warfarin therapy were 70.3% and 29.7% for the VKORC1/G and VKORC1/A alleles respectively. The frequencies of CYP2C9*2 alleles in Sudanese out-patients were 92.4% and 7.6% for CYP2C9*1 and CYP2C9*2 alleles respectively. Variables associated with low INR stability were VKCOR1/AA genotype (p-value = 0.028) and sex (p = 0.017). Variables that showed no association with INR stability were age (p-value = 0.259), compliance (p-value = 0.058). Vitamin K rich foods intake (p- value = 0.743), and mean stable warfarin dose (p-value = 0.439). Conclusion: Polymorphism in warfarin drug target gene VKORC1-11639G>A and sex are important elements of INR stability in Sudanese out- patients on long term warfarin therapy.

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