Individual and External Catalysts and Barriers of Biking: A Community Based Study in a Metropolis

Veda Vakili, Lida Jarahi Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi Bazzaz, Pardis Shojaee


Biking has proven health, environmental and traffic benefits. To prevail biking at community infrastructures and "Bicycle
Sharing Systems (BSS)" have been developed, but their effectiveness is dependent on people's attitudes and perceptions.
We aim to investigate attitudes of people toward biking and related infrastructures with regard to demographic factors in
Mashhad, Iran-a metropolis with unsuccessful BSS. The present work was conducted as a cross-sectional study at Mashhad,
Iran, in 2015. In a multistage sampling, adult inhabitants were selected and data about their perceptions of benefits and
barriers of biking were collected through a researcher-designed questionnaire. Of 437 study participants with a mean
(±SD) age of 29.9 (±11.3) years, 250 (57.3%) were female. Only 3 (0.7%) of respondents used bikes. Positive attitudes
were significantly associated with gender, marital status and occupation of participants. Car ownership was accompanied
by higher perceptions of "tiredness of biking"(p=0.02), its "low safety" (p=0.02) and "time wasting" (p=0.01). According to
the results, cultural interventions are needed for biking promotion regardless of their socioeconomic status. Educational
programs at academic settings are also valuable. Safety, convenience, and affordability of different groups of populations
(like elderly and deprived people) should be regarded during designing and constructing biking infrastructures and setting
participation rules.


Attitudes, Barriers, Bicycle Sharing System, Biking, Infrastructures, Perceptions

Full Text:



Ahmadi S, Heidari A, Mirfardi A, Mardani Z. Sociological

analysis of the relationship between attitudes toward biking

and rates of bike using in short urban travels. Journal of

Applied Sociology. 2013 Spring; 24(1):123–36. Persian.

Campbell ME, Bopp M. An examination of the relationship

of interpersonal influences with walking and biking

to work. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2013 Nov-Dec;


de Geus B, De Smet S, Nijs J, Meeusen R. Determining the

intensity and energy expenditure during commuter cycling.

Br J Sports Med. 2007 Jan; 41(1):8–12.

Dill J, Voros K. Factors affecting bicycling demand: initial

survey findings from the Portland, Oregon, region. Transportation

Research Record: Journal of the Transportation

Research Board. 2007; 2031:9–17.

Garrard J, Rose G, Lo SK. Promoting transportation cycling

for women: the role of bicycle infrastructure. Prev Med.

Jan; 46(1):55–9.

Hataminejad H, Ashrafi Y. The role of bicycle in urban sustainable

transportation case study: Bonab City. Human Geography

Research Quarterly. 2010; 41(70):45–63. Persian.

Jing C, Zhao Z. Research on antecedents and consequences

of factors affecting the bike sharing system—Lessons from

capital bike share program in Washington, DC. International

Conference on Logistics Engineering, Management

and Computer Science (LEMCS 2015). 2015 July 29-31;

Shenyang, China. Atlantis Press; 2015.

Khademolhoseini E, Rahmatu GH, Nejad RG. Investigation

of the strategy for reducing load of urban traffic (Study of

Shiraz). Amayesh. 2010 Spring; 3(8):1–19. Persian.

Afridi AK, Safdar M, Khattak MMAK, Khan A. Health risks

of overweight and obesity-An over view. Pakistan Journal

of Nutrition. 2003; 2(6):350–60.

Khan EB, Ramsey LT, Brownson RC, Heath GW, Howza

EH, Powell KE, et al. The effectiveness of interventions to

increase physical activity: A systematic review. American

Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2002; 22(4):73–107.

Kollenberg W, Látková P, Vogt C, Rodríguez A. Active

transportation among elementary-aged students: walking

or biking to and from school. Proceedings of the 2008

Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium; [Accessed

Apr 8]; Available from:

gtr/gtr-p-42papers/03knollenberg-p-42.pdf. p. 15–20.

Kovacs V. Seattle’s bicycle Stations: A social and infrastructure

support network for tired, wet, and caffeine deprived

cyclists, 2014, University of Washington. [Accessed 2016

Apr 8]; Available from:

Li J, Ren C, Shao B, Wang Q, He M, Dong J, et al. A solution

for reallocating public bike among bike stations, in

Networking, Sensing and Control (ICNSC). 9th IEEE International

Conference 2012 April 11-14. p. 352–5.

Malekhoseini A, Dargahi MM, Hajisharifi A, Karaminejad

T, Ramezanzade M. Investigating the factors influencing

the use of common bicycles in urban transportation: a

case study of Haft-Hoz and Madayen Quarters in District

Quarterly Geographical Journal of Chashmandaz-e-Zagros.

Spring; 4(11):159–78. Persian.

Martin EW, Shaheen SA. Evaluating public transit modal

shift dynamics in response to bikesharing: a tale of two US

cities. Journal of Transport Geography. 2014; (41):315–24.

Mokhtari R. Geographical analysis of the role of bike in the

transportation system of Isfahan. Urban-Regional Studies

and Research (University of Isfahan). 2011 Summer;

(9):101–22. Persian.

Mueller N, Rojas-Rueda D, Cole-Hunter T, De Nazelle A,

Dons E, Gerike R, et al. Health impact assessment of active

transportation: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2015 Jul;


Oja P, Vuori I, Paronen O. Daily walking and cycling to

work: their utility as health-enhancing physical activity. Patient

Educ Couns. 1998 Apr; 33(1 Suppl):S87–94.

Pucher J, Dill J, Handy S. Infrastructure, programs, and

policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Prev

Med. 2010 Jan; 50 Suppl 1: S106–25.

Saghayi M, Sadeghi Z. Model for midterm programming

for biking. Research and Urban Planning. 2013 Spring;

(12):95–116. Persian.

Shephard RJ. Is active commuting the answer to population

health? Sports Med. 2008 Sep; 38(9):751–8.

Shimode I, Nakamura F, Wang R. Social costs of private

bike and public bike- for bicycle policy evaluation reflecting

Japanese situation. Proceedings of International Symposium

on City Planning 2013; [Accessed 2016 Apr 8];

Available from: p. 1–8.

Warburton DER, Nicol CW, Bredin SSD. Health benefits of

physical activity: the evidence. Canadian Medical Association

Journal. 2006; 174(6):801–9.

Wareham NJ, Sluijs EMF, Ekelund U. Physical activity and

obesity prevention: a review of the current evidence. Proceedings

of the Nutrition Society. 2005; 64(2):229–47.

Zeng XM, Zhang YH. Bike sharing system in Foshan:

planning & practice. In: Applied Mechanics and Materials.

Trans Tech Pub. 2012 May; 178-181:1738–43.


  • There are currently no refbacks.



Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.


Listed as Green Publisher

Powered by Informatics India Ltd